# Scala: Seq, Map and Set as functions

Yesterday my mate asked me: “I have a `List[String]`

and a `Map[String, Int]`

and I want
a `List[Int]`

where its values are those of the `Map`

whose keys match the `List[String]`

elements,
maintaining the order. Should I use pattern matching?". I know, the sentence is a bit convoluted but the
code will make it clear, hopefully. Anyway, I replied: “No, you don’t need pattern matching, you just need this”:

```
scala> val m = Map("a" -> 1, "b" -> 2, "c" -> 3)
m: scala.collection.immutable.Map[String,Int] = Map(a -> 1, b -> 2, c -> 3)
scala> val l = List("a", "c", "b")
l: List[String] = List(a, c, b)
scala> l collect m
res0: List[Int] = List(1, 3, 2)
```

Hold on, how does it work? If you look at the definition of the `collect`

method you’ll see it accepts a
`PartialFunction`

, instead I passed a `Map`

to it.
Well, it turns out that `Map`

*is* a `PartialFunction`

.

Since this peculiarity surprised him I decided to write a small post showing how Scala’s `Map`

,
`List`

(actually `Seq`

) and `Set`

can be viewed as functions.

## Before starting: functions vs partial functions

In short, a function is a mapping `A => B`

that relates each value of type `A`

to a
value of type `B`

–modulo *bottom*. `A`

and `B`

are called *domain* and *codomain*, respectively. If you’re not a math
addict, roughly speaking, the domain is the set of all values that you may provide as input to your function,
while the codomain is the result of the function application to the input, that is your function output.

On the other hand a partial function from `A`

to `B`

is not defined for some inputs of type `A`

. E.g.:

```
// function
scala> val abs: Double => Double = x => if (x > 0) x else -x
abs: Double => Double = <function1>
scala> abs(42)
res1: Double = 42.0
scala> abs(-42)
res2: Double = 42.0
// partial function
scala> val sqrt: PartialFunction[Double, Double] = {
| case x if x >= 0 => math.sqrt(x)
| }
scala> sqrt(4)
res3: Double = 2.0
scala> sqrt(-1)
scala.MatchError: -1.0 (of class java.lang.Double)
at scala.PartialFunction$$anon$1.apply(PartialFunction.scala:253)
at scala.PartialFunction$$anon$1.apply(PartialFunction.scala:251)
at $anonfun$1.applyOrElse(<console>:7)
at $anonfun$1.applyOrElse(<console>:7)
at scala.runtime.AbstractPartialFunction$mcDD$sp.apply$mcDD$sp(AbstractPartialFunction.scala:36)
... 33 elided
```

Note that the `PartialFunction`

definition is the following:

```
trait PartialFunction[-A, +B] extends (A) => B
```

That is a `PartialFunction`

is a `Function`

that will just *throw* for those inputs the partial function is not
defined at. So you can use a `PartialFunction`

wherever a `Function`

is expected. Just keep in mind you’ll get
an exception for some input values.

## Seq[A] as PartialFunction[Int, A]

Being `List`

an indirect subclass of `collection.Seq`

and given that the latter has the following definition, you
can see clearly that every `Seq[A]`

is also a `PartialFunction[Int, A]`

:

```
trait Seq[+A] extends PartialFunction[Int, A] with ...
```

Here’s an example:

```
scala> val xs = List("a", "c", "b")
l: List[String] = List(a, c, b)
scala> val f1: PartialFunction[Int, String] = xs
f1: PartialFunction[Int,String] = List(a, c, b)
scala> f1(0)
res4: String = a
```

Of course I could have used `xs`

directly without the assignment to `f1`

:

```
scala> xs(0)
res2: String = a
```

I assigned the list to `f1`

just to emphasise the fact that it’s a partial function. It corresponds to the
index-based lookup.

**Performance concern**: Take into account that the index-based lookup on `List`

has a cost of `O(n)`

. For this type
of access you may consider using a `Vector`

which has constant-time access cost. Anyway this post is not about
performance concerns about the collection API so I won’t dig into this topic.

## Map[A, B] as PartialFunction[A, B]

If you look at the `Map`

definition you’ll see that it extends `MapLike`

which, in turn, extends `PartialFunction`

.
So you can use it as follows:

```
scala> val m = Map("a" -> 1, "b" -> 2, "c" -> 3, "d" -> 4)
m: scala.collection.immutable.Map[String,Int] = Map(a -> 1, b -> 2, c -> 3, d -> 4)
scala> val f2: PartialFunction[String, Int] = m
f2: PartialFunction[String,Int] = Map(a -> 1, b -> 2, c -> 3, d -> 4)
scala> f2("a")
res5: Int = 1
```

## Set[A] as A => Boolean

Here’s the definition of `Set`

:

```
trait Set[A] extends (A) => Boolean with ...
```

It, evidently, extends `A => Boolean`

which, as you probably already know, is just syntactic sugar for the more
verbose `Function[A, Boolean]`

. Example:

```
scala> val s = Set("a", "b", "c")
s: scala.collection.immutable.Set[String] = Set(a, b, c)
scala> val f3: String => Boolean = s
f3: String => Boolean = Set(a, b, c)
scala> f3("a")
res6: Boolean = true
```

So, for instance, you can use a set to filter a list:

```
scala> val xs = List("a", "c", "b")
xs: List[String] = List(a, c, b)
scala> val s = Set("a", "b", "d")
s: scala.collection.immutable.Set[String] = Set(a, b, d)
scala> xs filter s
res7: List[String] = List(a, b)
```

## Conclusions

As a final consideration take into account that `Seq`

s and `Map`

s are partial functions while `Set`

is a
function. Partial functions could introduce insidious bugs.
For instance, consider the very first example of this post.
If the `Map`

hadn’t contained all the elements of the `List`

and I had used
the `map`

method instead of `collect`

I would have introduced a bug:

```
scala> val xs = List("a", "b", "c", "d")
xs: List[String] = List(a, b, c, d)
scala> val m = Map("a" -> 1)
m: scala.collection.immutable.Map[String,Int] = Map(a -> 1)
scala> xs map m
java.util.NoSuchElementException: key not found: b
at scala.collection.MapLike$class.default(MapLike.scala:228)
at scala.collection.AbstractMap.default(Map.scala:59)
at scala.collection.MapLike$class.apply(MapLike.scala:141)
at scala.collection.AbstractMap.apply(Map.scala:59)
at scala.collection.immutable.List.map(List.scala:277)
... 33 elided
```

This is because `map`

accepts a function and providing a partial function instead you get the exception for not valid
inputs as I said in the functions vs partial functions section.

From now on, whenever you have a collection hanging around, consider looking at it as a function. This could help to solve your problem without using pattern matching or other boilerplate.